Tuesday, March 01, 2011

Zevachim 112b - Stages of Mishkan

The mishna teaches about the stages of the mishkan and the associated halachos.
There were 5 stages:
1. Pre-Mishkan - All bamos were permitted everywhere and avoda was done by bechoros.
2. Mishkan in midbar - Bamos were forbidden and avoda switched to kohanim. Kodshei kodshim could be eaten inside the curtains and kodshim kalim within the camp of Yisroel.
3. Mishkan in gilgal - For the 14 years that they were dividing and conquering, the mishkan was in gilgal. During this period they were allowed to build private bamos and anyone could sacrifice on them - kohein, bechor and even a zar. Kodeshi kodshim had to remain within the curtains of the mishkan, but kodshim kalim could be eaten anywhere. Rashi explains that since the degalim (camping according to tribe) was no longer in tact, and they were scattered around E.Y. to conquer, the kedusha of the machane yisroel was lost. Rashi seems to understand that the obligation to eat kodshim in machaneh yisroel only exists when there is status of machaneh yisroel. However, the Rambam (pirush hamishna) writes that the reason that we don't restrict kodshim kalim to be eaten only in Jewish cities (as it does by nov and givon) is that they didn't have cities under their control yet. The implication of the Rambam is that since they didn't have specific cities yet, the status that enabled them to eat kodshim extended throughout E.Y. wherever they were trying to conquer. This seems very different that Rashi who writes that during the time the status was void thereby allowing them to eat everywhere, presumably even in chutz la'aretz.
4. Mishkan in Shilo - Mishkan stood in Shilo as a stone structure with a curtained roof for 369 years. Bamos were no longer allowed and all korbanos had to be associated with the mishkan in shilo. Being that kedusha that emanated from the mishkan didn't extend to the city Shilo and didn't infuse it with any inherent kedusha status (in this respect it wasn't like yerushalyim), they were able to eat kodshim so long as the mishkan was visible from where they were. Rambam (pirush hamishna) writes: ואין ספק שהנביאים שראו אותו הבית עשו זה ולמדוהו וסמכו זה למה שנאמר פן תעלה עולותיך בכל מקום אשר תראה וכו' אבל אתה אוכל בכל מקום שאתה רואה. The Rambam seems to understand that this requirement was an institution of the nevi'im, not a Torah mandate. They merely use the pasuk as hint to their institution. However, the simple reading of the gemara 118a is that this is d'oraysa.
5. Mishkan in Nov and Givon - The mishkan was in nov and givon for a combined 57 years. During this time bamos were once again permitted. Kodshim kalim was able to be eaten in all Jewish cities.
6. Mikdash in Yerushalayim - All bamos became forbidden forever and kodshim kalim had to be eaten within the wall of Jerusalem.

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