Wednesday, November 21, 2012

Shabbos 51a - Wrapping to Keep Warm

The gemara says that one can wrap something that is cold - מותר להטמין את הצונן. Rashi explains that this means that one can wrap something cold to maintain the cold temperature but cannot wrap something cold to warm it and remove the chill. According to Rashi the gemara is coming to exclude the possible prohibition against wrapping to keep cold because it may lead to wrapping to keep warm, and wrapping for warmth is always prohibited. The Ran quotes the Rambam as saying that as long as one is not wrapping in something which increases heat, one may even wrap something cold so that it doesn't get colder or to even remove the chill.
The gemara discusses the case of wrapping something after it was transferred from the kli rishon into another container. The Rambam understands that once something is in a kli sheini there is no prohibition of hatmana. The Rambam understands that just as one may wrap something that is cold because there is no expectation of it really being warm and won't lead to reheating, so too one may wrap something once it has been put in a kli sheini. However, The Ran explains that Rashi cannot permit wrapping a kli sheini. Rashi holds that even if something is cold it cannot be wrapped to remove the chill, certainly one cannot wrap a hot food that is in a kli sheini. Therefore, Rashi goes li'shitaso in explaining the leniency of פינה ממיחם למיחם to be that since one poured from the kli rishon to the kli sheini for the purpose of cooling it down, there is no concern that they will want it so hot. We permit them to wrap it and aren't concerned that they will not be content with the level of warmth and come to reheat it, since they had already done something for the purpose of cooling it down. According to Rashi, we don't permit the wrapping of a kli sheini unless the item was put in a kli sheini for the purpose of cooling down. Based on Rashi, if one poured hot water into a thermos because it is better insulated and will retain the warmth more, although the actual thermos isn't a violation of hatmana, one would not be allowed to wrap the thermos and insulate it more since the pouring into a thermos was with the intent of preserving the warmth and not cooling it down.
Even according to those who permit the wrapping of a keli sheini (when not put in the keli sheini specifically to cool down - rambam), that would not necessarily allow the wrapping using a kli sheini. In the gemara 40b Rav Yitzchok Bar Avdimi wanted to place a jug of oil into the hot bath, and Rebbi instructed him to take water in a kli sheini and immerse the oil in that. This implies that there is no issue of hatmana by warming something up when a kli sheini is used as the heat source. However, the Gra"z (257:10) asks on this gemara why isn't there a problem of hatmana. It could be that Rebbi was not permitting the jug of oil to be submerged in the kli sheini (which would answer at least according to those rishonim who hold a partial hatmana is permitted such as the Rama 253). However, the Chazon Ish (37:32) writes that heating up a bottle or jar by surrounding it with warm water doesn't qualify as hatmana. According to the first approach, when heating up a baby bottle in water that was put into a kli sheini one must be careful, whereas according to the chazon ish that would not qualify as hatmana at all.
Tosafos Yeshanim holds that the heter of פינה ממיחם למיחם may be better than something cold. When one empties from a kli rishon into a kli sheini for the purpose of cooling it down, even if it is still very hot, they have shown that the heat isn't significant for them and therefore it is permitted to wrap it to preserve heat. But an item which is cold may still be prohibited to wrap to remove the chill, as Rashi explains, since they didn't do anything to show that they want it to be cold. Nevertheless, Rav Moshe (Igros, O.C. 1:95) explains that Tosafos Yeshanim understands that the gemara permits one to wrap something which is cold even for the purpose of removing the chill like those who argue on Rashi, yet permit פינה ממיחם למיחם only when it was poured into the kli sheini for the distinct purpose of cooling it down as Rashi explained.
Although the gemara concludes that it is permitted to wrap something cold, there is a machlokes amoraim whether an adam chashuv should be machmir. Rav Moshe (dibros #25) points out that according to the Rambam where the purpose of wrapping is to remove the chill, it makes sense that an adam choshuv should be machmir since the wrapping to remove the chill can lead one to wrap even for heat. But according to Rashi who holds that the nature of wrapping is to preserve the cold, it makes very little sense to be machmir for an adam choshuv because it essentially give the wrong impression as to the nature of this issur d'rabonon. It is one thing for an adam choshuv to be machmir for things that are in line with the halacha, but it doesn't make sense to be machmir for things that would mislead others as to what the exact nature of the halacha is.
Another two issues that are related to this is whether one can do hatmana when the ultimate temperature will remain below yad soledes. The Magen Avrohom has a safeik whether one can wrap something that has cooled to below yad soledes in order to preserve some level of heat. However, the M.B. 257:29 paskens like the gra"z and pri megadim who are lenient. In the Sha'ar HaTziyun (29) he writes that this is dependent on the machlokes shulchan aruch and rama in 318 whether there is bishul to reheat something that has dropped below yad soledes, where we see that according to the Rama even below yad soledes qualifies as חמין and therefore would be assur to do hatmana. The Chazon Ish (37:31) disagrees, even the Rama understands that below yad soledes is not called chamin, but regarding reheating we are lenient on anything that is recognizable that it had once been hot i.e. it hasn't cooled down completely. But this is only when one is wrapping something on shabbos that is below yad soledes to preserve its heat. If one is wrapping something cold to increase its heat, even if it can't reach a temperature of yad soledes, the Biur Halacha 257:6 d.h. afilu cites the Gr"a who says that this is forbidden to do on shabbos (therefore, wrapping a baby bottle with milk in hot water even in a kli sheini and even when it can't get to yad soledes, would be assur).

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